Progress in achieving quantitative classification of psychopathology

Journal article

Robert F. Krueger, Roman Kotov, David Watson, Miriam K. Forbes, Nicholas R. Eaton, Camilo J. Ruggero, Leonard J. Simms, Thomas A. Widiger, Thomas M. Achenbach, Bo Bach, R. Michael Bagby, Marina A. Bornovalova, William T. Carpenter, Michael Chmielewski, David C. Cicero, Lee Anna Clark, Christopher Conway, Barbara DeClercq, Colin G. DeYoung, Anna R. Docherty, Laura E. Drislane, Michael B. First, Kelsie T. Forbush, Michael Hallquist, John D. Haltigan, Christopher J. Hopwood, Masha Y. Ivanova, Katherine G. Jonas, Robert D. Latzman, Kristian E. Markon, Joshua D. Miller, Leslie C. Morey, Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt, Johan Ormel, Praveetha Patalay, Christopher J. Patrick, Aaron L. Pincus, Darrel A. Regier, Ulrich Reininghaus, Leslie A. Rescorla, Douglas B. Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Alexander J. Shackman, Andrew Skodol, Tim Slade, Susan C. South, Matthew Sunderland, Jennifer L. Tackett, Noah C. Venables, Irwin D. Waldman, Monika A. Waszczuk, Mark H. Waugh, Aidan G.C. Wright, David H. Zald, Johannes Zimmermann
World Psychiatry, vol. 17(3), 2018 Sep 1, pp. 282-293

DOI Wiley Online Library PubMed


APA   Click to copy
Krueger, R. F., Kotov, R., Watson, D., Forbes, M. K., Eaton, N. R., Ruggero, C. J., … Zimmermann, J. (2018). Progress in achieving quantitative classification of psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 17(3), 282–293.

Chicago/Turabian   Click to copy
Krueger, Robert F., Roman Kotov, David Watson, Miriam K. Forbes, Nicholas R. Eaton, Camilo J. Ruggero, Leonard J. Simms, et al. “Progress in Achieving Quantitative Classification of Psychopathology.” World Psychiatry 17, no. 3 (September 1, 2018): 282–293.

MLA   Click to copy
Krueger, Robert F., et al. “Progress in Achieving Quantitative Classification of Psychopathology.” World Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2018, pp. 282–93, doi:10.1002/wps.20566.

BibTeX   Click to copy

  title = {Progress in achieving quantitative classification of psychopathology},
  year = {2018},
  month = sep,
  day = {1},
  issue = {3},
  journal = {World Psychiatry},
  pages = {282-293},
  volume = {17},
  doi = {10.1002/wps.20566},
  author = {Krueger, Robert F. and Kotov, Roman and Watson, David and Forbes, Miriam K. and Eaton, Nicholas R. and Ruggero, Camilo J. and Simms, Leonard J. and Widiger, Thomas A. and Achenbach, Thomas M. and Bach, Bo and Bagby, R. Michael and Bornovalova, Marina A. and Carpenter, William T. and Chmielewski, Michael and Cicero, David C. and Clark, Lee Anna and Conway, Christopher and DeClercq, Barbara and DeYoung, Colin G. and Docherty, Anna R. and Drislane, Laura E. and First, Michael B. and Forbush, Kelsie T. and Hallquist, Michael and Haltigan, John D. and Hopwood, Christopher J. and Ivanova, Masha Y. and Jonas, Katherine G. and Latzman, Robert D. and Markon, Kristian E. and Miller, Joshua D. and Morey, Leslie C. and Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N. and Ormel, Johan and Patalay, Praveetha and Patrick, Christopher J. and Pincus, Aaron L. and Regier, Darrel A. and Reininghaus, Ulrich and Rescorla, Leslie A. and Samuel, Douglas B. and Sellbom, Martin and Shackman, Alexander J. and Skodol, Andrew and Slade, Tim and South, Susan C. and Sunderland, Matthew and Tackett, Jennifer L. and Venables, Noah C. and Waldman, Irwin D. and Waszczuk, Monika A. and Waugh, Mark H. and Wright, Aidan G.C. and Zald, David H. and Zimmermann, Johannes},
  month_numeric = {9}


Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is generally more dimensional than categorical. When the discreteness versus continuity of psychopathology is treated as a research question, as opposed to being decided as a matter of tradition, the evidence clearly supports the hypothesis of continuity. In addition, a related body of literature shows how psychopathology dimensions can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from very broad "spectrum level" dimensions, to specific and narrow clusters of symptoms. In this way, a quantitative approach solves the "problem of comorbidity" by explicitly modeling patterns of co-occurrence among signs and symptoms within a detailed and variegated hierarchy of dimensional concepts with direct clinical utility. Indeed, extensive evidence pertaining to the dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology has led to the formation of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Consortium. This is a group of 70 investigators working together to study empirical classification of psychopathology. In this paper, we describe the aims and current foci of the HiTOP Consortium. These aims pertain to continued research on the empirical organization of psychopathology; the connection between personality and psychopathology; the utility of empirically based psychopathology constructs in both research and the clinic; and the development of novel and comprehensive models and corresponding assessment instruments for psychopathology constructs derived from an empirical approach.


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